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Dr. D. Y. Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune
(Deemed to be University)
Dr. D. Y. Patil College of Physiotherapy
Sant Tukaram Nagar, Pimpri, Pune-411018

Understanding Sciatica: Causes, Symptoms, and Effective Management

Understanding Sciatica: Causes, Symptoms, and Effective Management

Explore the causes, symptoms, and effective management of sciatica. Learn prevention tips and coping strategies for a pain-free life. Get expert insights!

DPU Physio
January, 27 2024

Sciatica, a term that is often thrown around, is not fully understood by many. Knowing the ins and outs of this condition is the first step towards effective management and ultimately relief.

What is Sciatica?

Sciatica is a term used when there is a compression of a very large nerve in our lower limbs called the “SCIATIC NERVE.” The Sciatic Nerve exits from our lower back and is the major nerve for all lower limb functions. Any compression of this nerve at the lower spine leads to radiating pain down the legs, known as Sciatica.

A number of factors can cause sciatica, the primary cause of which is a herniated disc pressing on nerve roots in the lower spine. Other common culprits include spinal stenosis, degenerative disc disease, pregnancy, abdominal obesity, and advancing age. Understanding these causes is essential for identifying potential risk factors.

Symptoms of Sciatica:

Sciatica manifests in various ways, primarily through pain that radiates from the lower back to the leg, often on one side. This pain can vary from a mild ache to a sharp, tingling type, sometimes disrupting daily routine activities. It may be accompanied by tingling, numbness, or muscle weakness along the course of the sciatic nerve, from the posterior buttocks to the posterior thigh to the posterior leg and sole of the foot. Early recognition of these symptoms is important for prompt diagnosis and intervention. In advanced stages, pain and tingling may be accompanied by sensory and movement loss, muscle weakness, and difficulty in walking and moving around.

The effects of sciatica extend beyond mere physical discomfort. Daily activities such as sitting, standing, or walking can become challenging. Sleep can be disrupted, and the emotional toll of persistent pain should not be underestimated. Both the physical and emotional aspects are important to address when dealing with sciatica.

Common Risk Factors:

Understanding the risk factors associated with sciatica is critical for prevention and early intervention. Age, gender, occupation, and lifestyle are major players in determining susceptibility to this condition.

Age and Gender:

Sciatica is more prevalent in individuals between the ages of 30 and 50, and it seems to affect men and women equally. Aging-related changes in the spine, such as herniated discs and bone spurs, contribute to the likelihood of developing sciatica.


Occupations involving long durations of sitting and standing, lifting heavy weight in an improper posture, and a sedentary lifestyle are some common causes of sciatica.


Excessive weight around your belly is also a common cause to compress the Sciatic Nerve. The muscles of your back lose their strength because of obesity, which eventually stresses your low back, leading to compression.

Causes of Sciatica:

Conditions like Disc bulge, Stenosis, Degenerative disc, or spine diseases, listhesis, tumors around the low back area, and herniated disc are the most common causes of Sciatica.

Role of Physiotherapy in Sciatica:

Physiotherapy plays a very crucial role in preventing as well as managing the Sciatica complaints, such that a completely entire chapter can be written on this. Early physiotherapy also is very important to stop the progression of the sciatic nerve compression.

Various exercise therapy approaches, manual therapy, electrotherapy modalities, ergonomics and lifestyle medications are suggested by the physiotherapist. The main emphasis is the avoidance of Static Postures-may it be sitting or standing. Strengthening exercises to your back play the key in sciatica. With strengthening your core muscles, sciatica may be prevented or managed at a very early stage.

Aerobic exercises like cycling or swimming also help in reducing the load on the lower back and thereby preventing the compression.

So next time you leg hurts, do visit a physiotherapist. Remember that Sciatica is a symptom, not a disease. It is easily treated but do consult at an early stage.


Understanding the causes, symptoms and effective management strategies empowers individuals to take responsibility for their back health. Seeking professional guidance and adopting preventive measures are important components in the journey to a life less hindered by sciatica.

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